This article delves into the fascinating world of bricks, construction materials, and significant architectural achievements during the reign of George I (1714-1727). The reign of George I marked the beginning of the Georgian era, a period of significant architectural development and change.
Population and Living Conditions
During George I's reign, the population of England and Wales was estimated to be around 5.5 million. The majority of the populace still lived in rural areas, with agriculture being the primary occupation. However, cities like London were growing rapidly due to ongoing industrialisation and economic expansion.
Types of Dwelling and Construction Materials
The types of dwellings during George I's reign were diverse, ranging from rural cottages to urban terraced houses and grand mansions. Materials used in construction varied depending on the location and status of the occupants. In rural areas, cottages were built using traditional materials like wattle and daub or stone, while in urban areas, brick was increasingly used. The reign of George I marked a shift towards standardisation and uniformity in brick production, leading to the Georgian style of architecture.
In the reign of George I, the types of dwellings mirrored the socio-economic statuses and urban-rural divide of the populace. These dwellings ranged from the simple and modest to the grand and opulent.
Rural Cottages and Farmhouses
In rural areas, most people lived in modest cottages and farmhouses. The construction of these buildings heavily relied on locally available materials. Hence, these homes were primarily built using traditional materials like wattle and daub, timber, and thatched roofs. However, as the Georgian era progressed, brickwork started becoming more common in rural areas as well.
Urban Houses and Mansions
In urban areas, the architectural landscape was diverse. The growing urban populace led to the construction of terraced houses, particularly in the rapidly expanding cities like London. Most of these terraced houses were made from bricks, reflecting the industrialisation of brick production at that time.
The upper echelons of society, especially the nobility and the wealthy mercantile class, lived in grand mansions or townhouses, known as "London houses". These buildings were characterised by their symmetrical design, sash windows, and a panelled door at the centre. The exterior of these houses was almost invariably made from bricks, marking the definitive shift from stone to brick in the construction industry.
Construction Materials and Techniques
The main construction material of the Georgian era, which began with the reign of George I, was brick. The bricks used during this period were often made locally and had a distinctive red or sometimes yellow colour. The increased use of brick was partly due to advancements in brick-making technology and the transportation of goods, allowing for more standardisation and consistency in the bricks produced.
Stone, however, was still utilised, especially for dressings, window and door surrounds, and other decorative features. Additionally, stucco started gaining popularity during the latter part of the Georgian era as a cheaper alternative to stone.
One of the most notable buildings from George I's reign is Kensington Palace, which was renovated and extended during this period using red bricks and stone dressings.
Architectural and engineering advancements during the reign of George I were many, led by prominent architects like Sir John Vanbrugh and Nicholas Hawksmoor. Their collaborative work on Castle Howard, though begun prior to George I's reign, continued into his reign and remains a significant architectural achievement of the era.
Castles and Fortifications
No major castles or fortifications were built during the relatively short reign of George I. However, existing structures were often upgraded or modified to match the architectural trends of the period.
Societal Impact on Dwellings
The growing mercantile class and the stability after the War of the Spanish Succession influenced housing design and construction. The urban townhouse emerged as a preferred dwelling for the wealthy, often built in the fashionable Georgian style using bricks. Brick production and use rose dramatically during George I's reign, signalling the beginning of the era of industrialised brick manufacture.