Welcome to our exploration of the building techniques and materials employed by Ancient Persia, a civilization that thrived from 550 BCE to 651 CE. Ancient Persia, also known as the Achaemenid Empire, left a significant architectural legacy characterized by grand structures and innovative construction methods. In this article, we will delve into their construction techniques, focusing on their use of bricks and the challenges they faced during this era.
Building Techniques and Materials
Ancient Persia showcased remarkable architectural achievements that reflected the power and grandeur of the empire. The Persians employed advanced building techniques and utilized various materials to construct their monumental structures.
Brick Making Techniques
Brick making played a crucial role in Ancient Persian construction, contributing to the durability and magnificence of their buildings.
The brick making process in Ancient Persia involved:
- Raw Material Preparation: The builders collected clay from local sources and mixed it with other ingredients like sand, straw, or animal hair. This mixture enhanced the strength and workability of the bricks.
- Molding: The prepared clay mixture was poured into wooden or stone molds, which were often rectangular or square in shape. The molds allowed for consistent brick sizes and shapes.
- Drying: Once molded, the bricks were left to dry in the sun, gradually hardening and solidifying. This process typically took several weeks.
- Firing: Some bricks were fired in kilns, especially for structures requiring additional strength. The firing process involved stacking the dried bricks in kilns and subjecting them to high temperatures. This firing transformed the bricks into a hardened state.
Ancient Persians also utilized other materials in their construction, such as stone, wood, and mud bricks, depending on the availability and purpose of the structure.
Challenges in Construction
Despite their architectural prowess, Ancient Persians faced certain challenges during construction.
One notable challenge was constructing vast palaces and cities in arid regions with limited water resources. To overcome this, the Persians developed advanced systems of underground water channels called "qanats" to transport water from distant sources to their cities. These qanats provided a reliable water supply for construction and everyday needs.
Key Engineers and Architects
Ancient Persia was home to skilled engineers and architects who contributed to the empire's architectural achievements.
One prominent figure is Apollodorus of Damascus, a Greek architect who served under Emperor Trajan. Apollodorus played a crucial role in designing and constructing several notable structures, including Trajan's Forum and the impressive Trajan's Column in Rome.
Another influential engineer is Imhotep, who is credited with the design and construction of the iconic step pyramid of Djoser in ancient Egypt. Imhotep's innovative architectural techniques and engineering skills made him an enduring figure in the history of architecture.